Dosen Tetap Prodi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris FKIP UNRIKA Batam
This study focuses on the apology used by the English Department Students of unrika, Batam. Te sample can be taken 10 %-15%. So, in this study the writer takes 10 % of the total population. So, the number of sample is 16 students as the respondents of this study .The use of “excuse” is most often used in saying when they come late 56,25%, then use of “sorry” is most frequently used when the respondents do not come to campus. The use of sorry is most often used when the respondents do not assigment75 %. So, the use of “sorry” is the most frequently used in saying of apology
- A. Introduction
Language is a means of communications. It means that people use language to communicate with each other. With language man can express his idea and wishes to other people through language such as when he needs their help so that close operation among members of the group can be carried out. According to Wardhaugh (1972:3) language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbol used for human communications. People communicate daily more informal than formal, thus in daily conversations, sometimes we realize or do not realize using slang terms. Most of uses have a good idea of what slang is, and then we can recognize slang words or expression in our native language, and we know when it is appropriate to use them.
- B. Definition of the Speech Act and Apology
This part can be grouped into two, namely the definition speech acts and the definition of apology. Those will be explained as follows:
b. 1 Speech Acts
Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context. Therefore, Pragmatic is a branch of the linguistic study. According to Leech (1983: xi) pragmatics can be stated as a study of a language used in certain time and condition. While speech acts is part of pragmatics. According Austin (1962) views conversation in terms of acts, where language is used to perform actions. He breaks this up into two forms of act: the act of saying something which he terms as a locutionary act and the act of doing something or an illocutionary act. The locutionary act is the basic act of an utterance and it is produced as a meaningful linguistic expression. The illocutionary act is performed via the communicative force of an utterance. In other words, we normally form an utterance with some kind of function in mind. Therefore different communicative acts are performed using different types of utterances. According to Austin (1962) there are 3 types of acts in an utterance. First is the locutionary act which refers to the actual utterances made by the speaker which can be described in linguistic terms (grammar, lexical choice and phonology). Second is the illocutionary act which has much to do with the speaker’s intentions in making the utterance. Illocutionary acts are therefore related to such strategies as to elicit, inform, direct, argue, apologize and so forth. Finally perlocution refers to the result or effect that is produced by the utterance in that given context on the listener – whether or not the listener is persuaded by the argument presented by the speaker.
An illocutionary is an act in which the speaker’s primary concern is that the listener understands the intention made through the utterance. A perlocution is an act in which the speaker expects the listener not only to understand the intention but to act upon it. A proposition designates some quality or association of an object, situation, or event. Propositions can be evaluated in terms of their truth value but almost always have to communicate something more than just the truth of a proposition—the proposition is a truth and therefore the listener should do something in relation to that truth.
According to Renkema (1993:22) states that in performance; such as an act is performed by the utterance itself. And, Searle quoted by Renkema (1993: 23) states that in terms of form and function, this means that a form can only acquire a valid function given certain conditions. In addition, Searle (1975) has set up the following classification of illocutionary speech acts:
- Assertive = speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition, e.g. reciting a creed
- Directives = speech acts that are to cause the hearer to take a particular action, e.g. requests, commands and advice
- Commissives = speech acts that commit a speaker to some future action, e.g. promises and oaths
- Expressives = speech acts that express the speaker’s attitudes and emotions towards the proposition, e.g. congratulations, excuses and thanks
- Declarations = speech acts that change the reality in accord with the proposition of the declaration, e.g. baptisms, pronouncing someone guilty or pronouncing someone husband and wife.
b.2 The Notion of Apology
According to Dutschmann(2003) the apology strategies can be coded based on its taxonomies. This classification is based on the speakers’ tendency to take on responsibility (explicitly or inexplicitly) or to reject responsibility for the offense (partly or totally). It includes the following strategies and sub-strategies:
- Explicit expression of apology strategies, e.g sorry, excuse, apologizes, forgive, pardon, regret, afraid.